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(, Barker M. J. Do the nurse and patient have a clear understanding of precipitating event? Champion Four factors were identified as parent perpetuating factors: parent behavior (7 studies), parent situational distress (19 studies), parent anticipation of child distress (5 studies), and parent self-efficacy/attitudes (2 studies) ( Table III ). Pine Four child factors were identified as maintaining child anticipatory distress. Mora-Alba For gender, although results were varied, most studies (20/26) reported there was no effect of gender on anticipatory distress in children, while six studies found that girls experienced more anticipatory distress than boys. Search for other works by this author on: Factors affecting preoperative anxiety in children undergoing general anaesthesia for dental rehabilitation, European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry, Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, A pilot exploration of symptom trajectories in adolescents with cancer during chemotherapy, doi: 10.1097/NCC.0b013e318250da1a. (, Young C. Perpetuating factors are those that maintain the problem once it has become established. (, Tsao initially screened 1,000 abstracts to pilot the initial search strategy. One study found that 22% of 4–6-year-old children experience serious distress during the preparatory phase of an immunization ( Jacobson et al., 2001 ). D. J. If one of the criteria was rated as “high,” the overall study rating was considered to be high risk. Newton Additionally, factors that are considered protective can be collapsed within predisposing, perpetuating, and present factors. (, Dahlquist Direction dependent on type of behavior. Another “P” that can be relevant in case formulation are “present” … Positively predicts anticipatory distress. L. Precipitating Factors of Anticipatory Anxiety. Overall, results indicate that previous pain behavior positively predicts child anticipatory distress. Parents and children should examine patterns of past child behavior during painful procedures to better support and prepare children with these risk factors. Results are found in Table I . The effect of number of siblings and sibling order was investigated by three studies and was found to have no effect. The risk of bias for this factor was unclear. Finally, the evidence for other child behaviors (two studies) was inconclusive as studies highlighted different child behaviors associated with increased or decreased anticipatory distress. (, Moher Arai Note. A. Ollendick IDENTIFYING PRECIPITATING EVENTS LEADING TO REHOSPITALIZATIOO AMONG THE PSYCHIA1RICALLY DISABLED: A LEVELS MODEL OF SOCIAL PERCEPTION by Robin . L. In summary, most included studies were observational, from North America, encompassed a broad age range, and were based on surgical or needle-related procedures. Maranets Elfvin-Åkesson A. J. Wiznia G. L. A. S. Kooragayalu T. J. V. Authors of studies that could not be found were contacted. Blinkhorn (, Down S. + Factor has a positive relationship with anticipatory distress; − Factor has a negative relationship with anticipatory distress; ∅, no effect or significant relationship; O = observational study; E = experimental study; R = retrospective study; RCT = randomized controlled trial; Preop = preoperative; LP = lumbar puncture; BMA = bone marrow aspiration. As shown in Figure 2 , factors that are depicted with a question mark have inconclusive evidence. T. G. L. K. (, Davidson No contextual factors were found under the precipitating domain. (, Crandall Find more ways to say precipitating, along with related words, antonyms and example phrases at Thesaurus.com, the world's most trusted free thesaurus. Kirnon V. R. L. Wadsby Garfield The overall risk of bias rating was unclear ( Table I ). Risk of bias was variable across factors ranging the full gamut from low to unclear to high. This adaptation was based on the decision not to penalize nonrandomized observational studies for being evaluated against criteria for randomization. Braun Czarnecki Parental responding (modeling, overprotection, reinforcement, and encouragement) plays a key role in the development of anxiety ( Vasey & Dadds, 2001 ). Lindh D. E. Greenberg Vertommen Previous models share a common emphasis on the transactional and developmental nature of anxiety or fear over time and highlight the dynamic interaction between the individual child and his/her environment. Where does it go? Results suggest that the data regarding age were inconclusive with almost half the studies showing no age effect, and the majority of the other studies suggesting younger children have higher anticipatory distress. P. D. E. McKenzie (, Goodenough J. Kain, Caldwell-Andrews, Maranets, Nelson, and Mayes (2006) found that the presence of a calm parent reduces preoperative anxiety, while the presence of an overly anxious parent does not. HHS (, Kleiber Additionally, measures that were most specific to anxiety and fear were used. K. 2018 Nov;25(4):460-472. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpra.2018.04.001. These types of procedures provide repeated exposure to the stimuli whereby eventually extinction of the fear occurs. D. M. There was inconclusive evidence for child coping style with unclear risk of bias, reducing confidence in these findings. H. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. No/irregular dental visits positively predict. A. Richardson Laubreaux NLM L. M. Shanker (, Kain Sturges S. J. (, Wright Flora J. D. Finally, there were inconclusive results for child attachment from two low risk of bias studies. The study also had to measure anticipatory distress (including anxiety/fear rated before or after the procedure or in some cases pain scores prior to the application of pain) to a painful medical procedure or operation (laboratory pain tasks were excluded from the review). Stargatt This review also evaluated the included studies for risk of bias and identified methodological limitations of current studies. However, the precipitating events associated with the onset of pediatric chronic pain are not well studied. H. M. (, Chorney S. S. Predisposing Factors of Anticipatory Anxiety. Longitudinal and experimental research is needed to further elucidate these factors. M. W. (, Bevan The goal of the summary figure ( Figure 2 ) is to provide an overview for researchers and clinicians of the current literature as well as highlight gaps in the literature. B. Chen S. N. Oliverira Figure 1 provides the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) ( Moher, Liberati, Tetzlaff, & Altman, 2009 ) chart outlining the flow of study selection. P. Two broad factors were identified as factors that contributed to the onset of anticipatory distress to painful medical procedures. D. J. Overall findings suggest that parent anxious predisposition, and pain experience or fear of pain were all associated with increased anticipatory distress. G. A. H. L. K. L. L. (, Gazal (, Jacobson Definition of precipitating factors in the Definitions.net dictionary. Grunau M. L. (, Srivastava There are specific child behaviors such as using nonprocedural talk, humor, and talking to a parent that were related to child coping before a procedure, while verbal resistance was found to be positively associated to child preoperative anxiety. Ratcliffe Results vary based on the study. Britten Randomized controlled trials were included when appropriate; however, the variables predicting anticipatory distress were the focus, not the treatment effect. Greenberg (, Carillo-Diaz In this review, we examined 31 factors that predict anticipatory distress. The method, type of information, and developmental level of the knowledge provided may be important variables in whether the knowledge presented works. Hellier H. Johnston Epub 2018 Apr 20. Two authors evaluated risk of bias and consensus decisions were made where authors disagreed. M. Pillai Riddell Birth order was not found to have an effect on child anticipatory distress as indicated by three studies. To be evaluated as low risk of bias, all the criteria had to be rated as low. Ferreira S. S. Exclusion criteria for studies were: no painful medical procedure, incorrect age (i.e., not children 0 to 18 years), and studies where no factor was analyzed for its relationship to anticipatory distress. No contextual factors were found under the perpetuating domain. R. A. R. However, the knowledge of these proposed factors should be incorporated in randomized trials that test the efficacy of treatments of anticipatory distress. C. (, Goubet B. Present factors were chosen (instead of protective factors) due to the emphasis on “procedure” or contextual factors in the literature. Barnard The study supports the validity of the unipolar-bipolar distinction. (, Fukuchi Wollan L. L. G. Methodological factors may also have contributed to differences in results as the majority of studies did not examine a discrete age range but rather averaged over large age ranges of up to 15 years. N. Measures of anticipatory distress most proximal to the painful medical procedure were used. Bates 4. (, Hanas Landthrip This research was supported by awards to Dr. Pillai Riddell from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (MOP 84511), the Ontario Ministry of Research and Innovation (ER05-08-219), the Canadian Foundation for Innovation, and the York Research Chairs Program. The review process followed the PRISMA guidelines ( Moher et al., 2009 ; Figure 1 ). As listed in Table III , four factors were identified as child perpetuating factors: child knowledge (seven studies), child coping style (four studies), child cognitions (three studies), and other child behaviors (two studies). A. The first factor is general and specific negative pain events. Z. N. According to retrospective reports of adults with phobia, modeling and information transmission were the most common modes of fear acquisition with a minority reporting direct conditioning experiences ( Vasey & Ollendick, 2000 ). McGrath (, Tyc Martin Mayes Search results were limited to publication years (1946+) and age group (children 0–18 years). Lagerkranser Goldstein Overall, the evidence points toward a positive relationship between previous pain events and child anticipatory distress based on unclear risk of bias. (, Broome Mayes K. L. precipitating cause: a factor that initiates the onset of manifestations of a disease process. The most common procedures included surgery or operative procedures (29), immunizations/injections (13), dental procedures (11), and venipuncture procedures (8). Torry Genevro Health professional behavior (3 studies; Distress promoting behaviour positively predicts child anticipatory distress. T. W. Stewart I. C. A total of 15,106 participants were included in the review. L. J. de Armendi Furthermore, many of the studies included in the review were found to have high risk of bias often through biased outcome assessors or poor quality measures used. Sex Differences in Vitamin D Deficiency and Anthropometric Measurements in School-age Children from Rural Areas in Israel. A. For previous hospitalization, four of the five studies found no effect of previous hospitalization on child anticipatory distress; however, one study ( Broome & Hellier, 1987 ) found that hospitalization of a sibling (but not of self) was associated with higher anticipatory distress. The most common health-related Stressor involved personal injury or illness. Two parent predisposing factors that emerged as predicting increased child anticipatory distress are parent anxious predisposition and previous parent pain experience. A. However, two studies pointed to mechanisms that may underlie the effect of parental presence. Retrieved from, Survey of the prevalence of immunization non-compliance due to needle fears in children and adults, Conditioning and hyperalgesia in newborns exposed to repeated heel lances, Information-seeking coping and anxiety in school-age children anticipating surgery, A prospective study of dental anxiety in a cohort of children followed from 5 to 9 years of age, Emotional states of mothers and behavior of the child during minor surgery, Role of anticipatory anxiety and anxiety sensitivity in children's and adolescents' laboratory pain responses, Children's distress in anticipation of radiation therapy procedures, The developmental psychopathology of anxiety, Handbook of developmental psychopathology, The case formulation in child and adolescent psychiatry, Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, Anxiety in children having elective surgery, When are parents helpful? Precipitate definition: If something precipitates an event or situation , usually a bad one, it causes it to... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples M. (, Bradley B. C. G. Alpert E. A Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool: For non-randomized studies of interventions (ACROBATNRSI), version 1.0.0. The summary figure ( Figure 2 ) includes most of the information from Tables I to IV and highlights the contribution of predisposing, precipitating, perpetuating, and present factors influencing the child’s anticipatory distress. The second precipitating child factor that was identified was previous child/adolescent behavior (five studies). R.R. M. Objective: Precipitating factors and life events associated with medically serious suicide attempts were examined in young people making serious suicide attempts and control subjects. Finally, protective factors are strengths of the child or reduce the severity of problems and promote healthy and adaptive functioning. The overall risk of bias score for temperament was unclear ( Table I ). Stevens The first factor was general and specific negative pain events (33 studies). Hepworth Roberts Hawkins Franca For example, using the State Trait Anxiety Inventory over a general distress measure. Jamsen G. T. E. The evidence for child coping style was inconclusive based on unclear risk of bias. Prevention of suicide and attempted suicide in Denmark. L. A. F. (, Palermo For child cognitions (three studies), overall results suggest that child cognitions including high threat appraisal, lower perceived control, and high aversion to the procedure were all associated with higher child anticipatory distress, based on studies with unclear risk of bias. Note. J. 1 word related to precipitating: causative. Honakala S. R. Despite the important implications of anticipatory distress to painful medical procedures for children, little empirical work has investigated the factors that lead to its development. It may be that hospitalization itself is not sufficient to lead to the development of fear but rather that negative experiences or vicarious fear are much more salient. Precipitating factors refer to a specific event or trigger to the onset of the current problem. The results for parent education and coping style were found to be inconclusive. C. R. M. J. Given the transactional and individual factors that predict anticipatory distress, clinical recommendations for parental presence during a procedure should be based on characteristics of the parent and their ability to provide calm support rather than the blanket assumption that all parents should consistently be present or not present. Anticipatory distress has been identified as occurring as early as infancy. Romero The results showed that 17 studies found that previous negative experiences positively predict child anticipatory distress, whereas 12 studies found no effect of previous painful events. Three authors (N.R., R.P.R., A.T.) and the librarian from a tertiary hospital identified studies through database searching as described above, and duplicates were removed using reference management software (Endnote X7). Runnel What are the links? Finally, protective factors are strengths of the child or reduce the severity of problems and promote healthy and adaptive functioning. Percent agreement, calculated as the percentage of studies that were agreed upon between two authors, ranged from 0.83 to 0.95 indicating strong inter-rater agreement. M. M. J. Owen Dillon These are the areas Budman & Gurman (1988, p.36) call the developmental, the interpersonal, and the … Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "precipitating event" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Included study flow chart following PRISMA guidelines. 2. a deposit of solid particles settled out of a solution. Z. N. K. Predisposing factors are those that put a child at risk of developing a problem (in this case, high anticipatory distress). These areas will be important targets for interventions. Precipitating factors were categorized as psychological, physical, social, combinations of the afore- mentioned categories, postpartum and menopausal. Rosenberg (, deVos All studies were classified as high, unclear, or low risk of bias. Decision-making reliability for study inclusion was evaluated for 20% of all studies screened. L. S. Benoit T. H. Mahmood Ludvigsson G. (, Vasey J. Psychotherapy starts with the first contact between the patient and the therapist. (, Ameringer When examining the parent factors that perpetuate a child’s anticipatory distress to painful medical procedures, an important pattern emerges. Levels of trait impulsivity, suicidal ideation, and current attempt status did not differentiate groups. Wilk (, Chorney Nommela Precipitating events among patients in the group with major depression consisted more often of acute external stressors. 1: Theory and methods, Children's knowledge, anticipatory anxiety, procedural distress, and recall of esophagogastroduodenoscopy, Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, The influence of appraisals in understanding children's experiences with medical procedures, Dental anxiety and dental pain in 5- to 12-year-old children in Recife, Brazil, Children's pre-operative tonsillectomy pain education: Clinical outcomes, International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, Factors associated with a difficult induction of general anaesthesia, When distraction fails: Parental anxiety and children’s responses to distraction during cancer procedures, Parenting and child distress during cancer procedures: A multidimensional assessment, Adult command structure and children's distress during the anticipatory phase of invasive cancer procedures, Risk factors for anxiety at induction of anesthesia in children: A prospective cohort study, Fear of repeated injections in children younger than 4 years receiving subcutaneous allergy immunotherapy, Annals of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology, The feasibility of creating a checklist for the assessment of the methodological quality both of randomised and non-randomised studies of health care interventions, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Preparing children and families psychologically for day surgery: An evaluation, Pre-surgical child behavior ratings and pain management after two different techniques of tonsil surgery, Hospitalization stress in children: Sensitizer and repressor coping styles, Preoperative anxiety in adolescents undergoing surgery: A pilot study, A controlled trial of the impact of exposure to positive images of dentistry on anticipatory dental fear in children, Pre and postoperative psychological profile of children submitted to adenoidectomy and/or tonsillectomy, Revista Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia, Distress related to dental extraction for children under general anaesthesia and their parents, European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry: Official Journal of European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry. Dougherty J. C. V. Yelland (, Claar C. The studies that found a negative relationship between previous pain events and anticipatory distress were methodologically different in that they all involved short routine medical procedures such as insulin injections ( Hanas et al., 2002 ; Howe, Ratcliffe, Tuttle, Dougherty, & Lipman, 2011 ) and immunotherapy injection ( deVos et al., 2012 ). Restricted age range may also interact to compound anticipatory distress to painful medical occurs. Precipitating by the Free Dictionary previous parent pain experience procedure will help inform targets for intervention in School-age children birth. Likelihood of conditioning fear and anxiety parent education and coping style were found under the domain. Study rating was considered to be high risk factors refer to a specific event or to..., perpetuating, and present factors systematically differ between the patient and the therapist longitudinal and experimental could! N. Clifton R. K. 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